Explain The Munich Agreement

Faced with tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovak government, BeneŇ° secretly proposed, on September 15, 1938, to give Germany 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) to Czechoslovakia, in exchange for a German agreement, 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans who would drive Czechoslovakia. Hitler did not respond. [13] [still] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference of September 1938 ceded to Germany the German-speaking Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the signing of the Munich Agreement, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. Ucla Film and Television Archive As threats against Germany and a European war became increasingly evident, opinions changed. Chamberlain was rewarded for his role as one of the “Men of Munich” in books like the Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defense of the agreement during the war came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Chancellor of the Lord. Maugham considered the decision to create a Czechoslovak state with significant German and Hungarian minorities to be a “dangerous experiment” in light of previous disputes and attributed the agreement to the need for France to free itself from its contractual obligations in the face of its lack of preparation for war. [63] After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of that time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement had been false in Munich, and they recorded Churchill`s pre-war warnings of Hitler`s plan of attack and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain. While acknowledging that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, Churchill argued that Hitler should have resisted in Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to involve the Soviet Union.

29-30 September 1938: Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France sign the Munich Agreement, under which Czechoslovakia must cede its border regions and defence zones (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938. In my letter of 18 July 1941, I informed Your Excellency that the King had decided to accredit an Extraordinary Envoy and Minister Delegate to Dr. BeneŇ° as President of the Czechoslovak Republic. I explained that this decision implied that Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom considered that the legal position of the President and Government of the Czechoslovak Republic was identical to that of the other Allied Heads of State and Government established in that country. . . .